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Radar_Use

Radar Simulation Directive

  1. Ground Control Use

    1. Ground Surveillance Radar is in use at the following airports:

      • KSLC Salt Lake Intl

    2. When Ground Surveillance Radar is in use, ground control must verify the following prior to allowing pilot to operate on a taxiway:

      • The pilot is squawking the correct/assigned code

      • The radar displays Mode-C reporting

      • The verbal position report is where the radar reports their position.
        Note - In cases where the verbal position report is not what the radar scope displays and the pilot cannot seem to justify the discrepancy, give taxi instructions based on the verbal position report and advise the pilot that the ground radar has them at another location and to use caution. Later, you are likely to be able to see the pilot operating on a taxiway that was not in their taxi instructions and be able to inform the pilot that they were incorrect in their position report. This will be considered a learning opportunity for that pilot.

    3. VASTIM Software/Network Limitations
      1. At airports where Ground Surveillance Radar is not in use, Ground Control must utilize the pilot’s verbal position report to issue taxi instructions rather than where ATC see the pilot on their screen. Reference Section 1.3.3 Note.



  2. Tower/Local Control Use
    1. Types:
      1. Full Radar - These airports have fully radar certified controllers working the Tower position and may use the radar to the fullest extent possible per facility directive.

      2. Limited Radar - These airports have a feed of the area radar returns to aid in Local and Radar controller coordination and sequencing of aircraft.

      3. None Radar - These airports have no radar feed at all and must rely completely by visual and/or timed applications.

    2. Airports and Radar Types:
      1. For the purposes of simplicity (or until all real world radar data can be reviewed), the following classifications for airport radar types will apply:

        • All Class B and C airports will be considered Full Radar capable.

        • All Class D airports within a TRACON boundary will be considered Limited Radar capable.
          The exceptions to this rule is TWF and HLN Towers, as both of the Approach facilities are non-radar.

        • All Class D airports not-within a TRACON boundary will be considered to have no radar capabilities.

    3. Use Per Radar Types
      Note - Facility SOPs may restrict use of the following on a case by case bases.

      1. Full Radar Airport Towers

        1. May use all forms of radar control to include (but not limited to), application of vectors, speed control, radar identification, radar traffic advisories, and assignment of beacon codes.

        2. Will not radar identify IFR departures

        3. Will radar identify all VFR departures and arrivals.

        4. Will verify correct squawk code and mode return prior to handing off to departure control.

      2. Limited Radar Airport Towers

        1. Will not officially use radar separation of any form.

        2. May use the radar as an aid to sequence and identify aircraft but should never be used as an official radar service.

        3. Must use one of the following prior to issuing instructions based on a target displayed location: Assign beacon code, Squawk Ident, Departure notification or IFR arrival maintaining a beacon code. The term “Radar Contact” will never be used.

        4. May issue traffic advisories and suggested headings.

    4. VATSIM Software/Network Limitations

      1. When using VASTIM controlling software, ATC are able to see the pilot’s real position relative to airports even though the pilot reports another position. In these cases, a Limited or Non-Radar tower shall issue instructions based on the pilot reported position. This can be used as a learning opportunity for the pilot when ATC notifies them that their previously reported position was incorrect (just as they would in real world) “N123AB, I see you now approaching from the South. You reported that you were north of the field, that is why I gave you a Right downwind entry for runway 27. In the future, try to be positive of your location when reporting it to ATC. Enter left downwind now, runway 27. Cleared to land.”



  3. TRACON Control Use of Radar

    1. For the purposes of simplicity (or until all real world radar data can be reviewed), all radar stations will be considered within 40nm of an aircraft target while within the TRACON boundaries and therefore a minima of 3nm of separation will apply.

    2. For the purposes of simplicity (or until all real world radar can be reviewed), all TRACON radar coverage extends down to the surface within the TRACON boundaries.

    3. Radar handoff VFR aircraft to tower controllers of Class B and C airports during arrival or transitions through the tower airspace

      1. If the pilot is to fly into the Class B airspace, TRACON is to clear the pilot into/through the airspace prior to handoff to tower.

      2. If the aircraft receiving radar services from the TRACON controller is arriving into a class D airport, and the TRACON controller is providing tower services to that field, the TRACON controller is to terminate radar services to that aircraft at or before the boundary of the Class D airspace and provide squawk instructions as if there were a tower controller online.



  4. Center/Enroute Control Use of Radar

    1. For the purposes of simplicity (or until all real world radar data can be reviewed), all radar stations will be considered beyond 40nm of aircraft targets while operating outside of TRACON boundaries, therefore 5nm separation will apply. Radar minima may be reduced to 3nm if the ATC has valid resources to show that the two or more aircraft within separation of 3nm-<5nm are within 40nm of a radar station in the real world.

    2. Airports with zero radar coverage will utilize the IFR 1-IN-1-OUT rule.
      Note-For the purposes of simplicity (or until all real world radar data can be reviewed), all airports within ZLC ARTCC boundaries are considered to have radar coverage extending to the surface.

    3. Radar handoff VFR aircraft to tower controllers of Class B and C airports during arrival or transitions through the tower airspace

      1. If the pilot is to fly into the Class B airspace, Center is to clear the pilot into/through the airspace prior to handoff to tower.

      2. If the aircraft receiving radar services from the Center controller is arriving into a class D airport, and the TRACON controller is providing tower services to that field, the Center controller is to terminate radar services to that aircraft at or before the boundary of the Class D airspace and provide squawk instructions as if there were a tower controller online.